|Beitragstitel||Mechanism and predisposing factors for non -traumatic proximal tibial epiphysiolysis in adolescents during sports activities. A retrospective analysis of cases and a systematic literature review.|
Introduction: Non-traumatic proximal tibial epiphysiolysis (NTPTE) can have debilitating consequences for young athletes. The mechanism and predisposing factors for this lesion have yet to be determined. To find a common denominator and a biomechanical explanation for NTPTE we conducted a retrospective analysis of 15 cases in combination with a systematic review of literature.
Methods: A retrospective review of medical charts was performed to identify all NTPTE between 2003 and 2012. Records were screened for patient age and gender, sports activity, mechanism of injury and treatment protocols. Additionally a literature review (MEDLINE/PubMed database, the Cochrane Library, online search engines) was conducted.
Results: Medical charts of 14 adolescents (15 Salter-Harris I and II fractures) were analyzed. The literature review revealed additional fractures. The predominant mechanisms were landing from a jump, take- off for a jump, stop and go movements and eccentric muscle contraction with the knee in flexion. The main sports-activitie implicated in these injuries was basketball.
Conclusions: Landing from a jump with a decreased knee and hip flexion movement increases tensile forces on the proximal tibia epiphysis. During physiological epiphysiodesis the growth plate displays an increased vulnerability and such increased tensile forces can lead to a growth plate failure. Neuromuscular fatigue can alter coordination and proprioceptive accuracy during landing from a vertical jump and thus affect sagittal shock absorption. In our opinion, trainers should instruct young athletes in techniques that help avoiding uncontrolled high impact landings.