Heidi Bruderer Enzler, PhD | ETH Zürich | Switzerland
Andreas Diekmann, Prof. Dr. | ETH Zürich | Switzerland
Ulf Liebe, Prof. Dr. | University of Bern | Switzerland
How are noise annoyance, noise exposure at one's home and perceptions of distributive justice of noise pollution related? In an environmental justice survey, we are currently running in two major Swiss cities (n ≈ 3,500), respondents are presented with a fictitious municipal project to reduce road traffic noise immissions. They are asked to choose among four options of how the project should affect noise exposure of the cities' residents. These options correspond to different justice theories: Bentham's utilitarianism (i.e. maximization of aggregate net benefits), Rawls' contractarianism (i.e. maximization of benefits to the least advantaged), and two aspects of egalitarianism (i.e. "equal benefits to all" or minimization of existing inequalities).
To analyze the relationship between distributive-justice perceptions and one's own perceived and objective noise exposure, we will geocode the respondents' residential addresses and link the survey to spatial data on road traffic noise exposure. This allows analyzing how differences in the perception of justice are related to both individual characteristics – e.g. noise annoyance, subjective noise exposure, environmental attitudes, education, income and further sociodemographic variables – and actual noise exposure.
3934 - Socioeconomic and ethnic inequalities in transport-related outdoor noise at residence in London
Daniela Fecht, PhD | Imperial College London | United Kingdom
Carles Mila | ISGlobal, Center for Research in Environmental Epidemiology | Switzerland
Mar Álvarez Pedrerol, PhD | IS Global Barcelona Institute for Global Health | Spain
John Gulliver, PhD | Imperial College London | United Kingdom
Cathryn Tonne, PhD | IS Global Barcelona Institute for Global Health | Spain
Transport-related noise varies within cities but little is known about differential exposure across vulnerable subpopulations.
We characterised inequalities in residential exposure to traffic-noise from roads, railways and aircraft in relation to individual- and area-level socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity in Greater London.
We assigned road-traffic noise (LNight, LAeq,16hr, LDen) to ~45,000 individuals, using the TRAffic Noise EXposure model and identified those within 50dB noise contours of over-ground railways and Heathrow and City airport. We used household income as an individual-level and the Index of Multiple Deprivation as an area-level marker of SES.
Road-traffic noise increased slightly with decreasing area-level SES for all metrics. We observed a strongly increasing trend in exposure from railways and City airport with deprivation (individual- and area-level); 10% and 0.3% of individuals in the highest tenth of household income were exposed to noise from railways and City airport, respectively, compared to 15% and 0.9% in the lowest tenth. For Heathrow airport the trend was opposite; 18% in the highest tenth of household income and 10% in the lowest. Differences by ethnicity were marginal.
3612 - Environmental noise challenges and policies in low and middle income countries
Dietrich Schwela, PhD | University of York/Stockholm Environment Institute | United Kingdom
Information on environmental noise challenges was gathered for 139 countries, identified by the World Bank as of low income (31), lower middle income (52), and upper middle income (56). Data on noise levels were found in urban agglomerations of two low income, 13 lower middle income, and 20 upper middle income countries. Environmental noise pollution continues to grow in all studied cities due to increase in motor vehicle fleets, airport operations and industries. The main driving forces are population growth, urbanization, motorization and to a large extent technological development. In this paper the major noise sources in two low income countries, 13 lower middle income countries and 13 upper middle income countries (excluding Member States of and countries on the road to the European Union) are identified and observed environmental noise levels reviewed. The paper also compiles the adverse health effects of extensive noise exposures in urban agglomerations that have already been observed in some of these countries. The key laws and by-laws and other regulations on noise pollution in these countries and the level of their enforcement are discussed.